Sunday, October 07, 2007

Antara Arang dan Peta - Huru-hara Dagang Arang

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Di masa silam peta adalah alat ampuh meluasnya praktik pencaplokan (aneksasi) dan penjajahan (kolonisasi) wilayah satu bangsa oleh bangsa lain, atas nama pemakmuran dan pemajuan peradaban bangsa penguasa informasi geografik tersebut. Peta mewakili informasi dan pengetahuan tentang wilayah. Pekerjaan luarbiasa hebat pun ditempuh untuk menghasilkan peta yang mengandung pengetahuan sesuai kebutuhan ekonomi-politik saat itu.

Seorang kawan saya bahkan melanjutkan pendidikan tingginya hingga tingkat doktoral di Hawaii demi memahami dan mendalami bagaimana peta digunakan sebagai alat kuasa. Beberapa bahan bacaan pun mengamini betapa besar kuasa alat bernama peta dalam pengambilan keputusan. Seorang Ferdinand Magellan, James Cook, Vasco da Gamma, dan lainnya, adalah para petualang Eropa yang membelah samudera untuk kepentingan keputusan-keputusan ekonomi-politik tersebut.

Terlepas dari tujuan penggunaannya, kita bisa pelajari bahwa ada proses ilmiah yang serius di balik perkembangan dan pemajuan perpetaan. Teknik navigasi terus pesat berkembang. Teknik menggambar peta (kartografi) pun demikian. Ketika peradaban Eropa menemukan mesin yang dapat membawa manusia terbang dan memiliki jangkauan pandangan lebih luas, pemajuan peta berada di urutan utama. Apalagi di era penerbangan antariksa, penggunaan satelit pun menjadi keharusan.










Di masa sekarang, saya melihat arang (karbon) menjadi alat kuasa baru. Seperti halnya peta, karbon memiliki makna yang seimbang. Ia bisa berkonotasi positif sekaligus negatif. Secara alami arang merupakan bagian dari kehidupan di planet Bumi. Ketika kita bernafas menghirup, hidrat-arang (karbondioksida) adalah buangannya. Pepohonan dan hewan pun sama. Proses pelepasan dan pemanfaatan zat arang di atas disebut siklus karbon. Alam, di belahan planet bumi manapun, senantiasa melibatkan siklus karbon. Namun kisah alami itu berantakan ketika Revolusi Industri terjadi pada akhir abad ke-18 di Eropa.

Seperti halnya mahluk hidup, mesin-mesin uap, mesin-mesin berbahan bakar fossil (minyak, gas, batubara) juga membuang zat arang dari proses produksinya. Berbeda dengan mahluk hidup, zat atau senyawa buangan proses produksi mesin-mesin tersebut bersifat racun bagi mahluk hidup. Zat arang atau senyawa yang mengandung arang yang dilepas ke udara dari mesin-mesin produksi berbahan bakar fossil yang kemudian terkumpul dan mampat di atmosfer bumi menjadi mesin pembunuh paling ampuh kehidupan seantero planet.

Ia membunuh secara langsung lewat proses peracunan, atau membunuh perlahan dan terakumulasi sepanjang waktu untuk membunuh generasi mahluk hidup di masa depan. Zat karbon atau senyawa karbon bersama gas lain itu disebut gas-gas rumah kaca, karena kemampuannya mempertahankan panas (dan memanaskan) dalam selubung atmosfer bumi, seperti halnya rumah kaca untuk keperluan perbenihan.

Itulah inti dari pesan tentang krisis iklim yang saat ini ramai dibicarakan. Sehingga sangat keliru jika kita melihat krisis iklim sebagai fenomena alam. Ia murni karya manusia. Manusia yang tak pernah merasa cukup untuk terus menggenjot kemakmurannya.

Maka bangsa-bangsa di planet bumi pun berkumpul dan menyatakan keprihatinan bersama, untuk kemudian bersepakat untuk bersama-sama memecahkan krisis tersebut pada tahun lewat Kerangka Kerja PBB untuk Perubahan Iklim. Negara-negara industri maju yang membuang zat arang dan senyawa arang (serta gas lainnya) disepakati untuk menurunkan jumlah dan konsetrasi buangannya. Kesepakatan itu menjadi kewajiban bagi negara-negara yang menandatangani apa yang disebut dengan Protokol Kyoto. Itu berarti, mereka harus memperlambat laju pertumbuhan ekonominya. Negara-negara miskin, yang sesungguhnya berlimpah kekayaan bahan-bahan mentah yang dikeruk negara-negara industri maju, terbebas dari kewajiban tersebut.

Sejak itulah arang menjadi alat kuasa baru. Terutama ketika politik dalam negeri di negara-negara industri maju penandatangan Protokol Kyoto mulai terlibat. Keengganan untuk menghambat laju pertumbuhan ekonomi menjadi arena pemenangan kekuasaan di beberapa negara industri maju. Maka lahirlah siasat-siasat yang seakan-akan didukung kajian-kajian ilmiah, yang tujuannya tak lain untuk mengurangi atau bahkan menghindari pemenuhan kewajiban yang telah disepakati. Maka lahirlah praktik perdagangan buangan gas-gas rumah kaca (terutama arang).

Beberapa negara industri maju aktif melobi dan mempengaruhi kerja-kerja PBB dalam proses perumusan strategi pelaksanaan penurunan buangan gas-gas rumah kaca. Hasilnya tak lain berupa perangkat-perangkat moneter dan ekonomik yang dianggap mampu mewakili kewajiban menurunkan buangan karbon.

Yang paling mencolok adalah Amerika Serikat, ketika George W. Bush terpilih sebagai presiden di tahun 2000, kebijakan luar negeri pertama yang ia ambil adalah menolak menandatangani Protokol Kyoto. Amerika Serikat adalah negara penyumbang zat karbon dan senyawa karbon di urutan pertama. Tak ada niatan politik rezim George W. Bush untuk menurunkan buangan karbonnya. Bahkan tak lama ia naik ke singgasana rezimnya langsung mengeluarkan Strategi Energi Amerika Serikat, yang tanpa tedeng aling-aling memaparkan bagaimana negara adidaya tersebut akan memenuhi kebutuhan energinya.

Sejak akhir tahun 2000 muncul dinamika ekonomi-politik baru, yang menyeret negara-negara tropika miskin pemilik bahan-bahan mentah industrial untuk masuk menjadi pihak yang juga mengemban kewajiban kerangka kerja perubahan iklim. Karena negara-negara torpika miskin tersebut tidak memiliki industri secanggih negara-negara industri kaya, maka didapuklah aspek lain, berupa pembukaan hutan alam sebagai penyumbang buangan arang yang dianggap setara dengan arang buangan bahan bakar fossil. Padahal pembukaan hutan-hutan alam tak bisa lepas dari upaya pemenuhan kebutuhan bahan-bahan mentah negara-negara industri kaya tersebut.

Lewat teknik berhitung yang khusus dikembangkan para ilmuwan negara-negara industri kaya lahirlah penyetaraan nilai arang fossil dengan arang hutan. Pembongkaran hutan (deforestasi) menjadi kata kunci paling ampuh akhir-akhir ini, yang telah menempatkan Indonesia di urutan ketiga negara penyumbang karbon terbesar di dunia. Dengan menggunakan angka-angka kandungan arang praktik bisnis tukar-menukar kewajiban menurunkan buangan karbon pun marak. Inilah inti perdagangan arang.

Duduk perkara yang dibuat rumit itu adalah pangkal malapetaka baru ke depan di negara-negara tropika miskin. Karena praktik bisnis tukar-menukar kewajiban menurunkan buangan karbon sama sekali tidak mengubah paradigma pembangunan yang sudah jelas-jelas menimbulkan krisis kehidupan di negara-negara tropika miskin sepanjang lebih dari lima dekade. Praktik investasi yang rakus lahan, menggerus daya dukung lingkungan, serta menyingkirkan komunitas-komunitas asli dan tempatan akan terus terjadi.

Ketidakpahaman seorang pemimpin wilayah akan menciptakan bencana baru bagi warganya. Seorang bupati dari Bengkulu, seperti dituturkan seorang kawan yang penjabat di sebuah kantor Negara, bertanya, "Kalau kami sudah menjaga hutan, lalu membuat hutan menghasilkan karbon (arang), bagaimana nanti kami akan mengangkutnya untuk diperdagangkan?"

7 September 2007


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The moment you figured out you won, you must immediately yell BINGO, and it should be loud enough for the floor walker to hear. The pot money shall be given to the winner once their winning card is confirmed. Well, in winning or once you know you just won, the most important thing is that you shout the winning word BEFORE the time elapses. If the game proceeds and the next number is mentioned and you failed to shout "Bingo", your winning card is disqualified. Therefore, this is the rule you must know.

There may be cases when there are two winners, and in this case the pot money shall be divided equally among the winners. Supposing there are two winning cards, the two winners will share half the prize money.

Bingo Game Rules

Bingo rules are basically the same no matter in which Online Bingo hall you play. But still it's good if you know these rules by heart. If it is your first try, then ask for handouts and inquire from pros regarding the game rules. Nonetheless, the ideal thing to do if you have questions is to ask the floor walker and not the person seated beside you. You should clarify things and doubts before the game starts because asking too many questions as the game proceeds could well distract you. This guideline also applies to those who are newcomers at casinos, those who play roulette for the first time.

Bingo halls demand an age limit of 18 years old. If you are below this age, you are prohibited to play. Some bingo houses ban alcohol inside, so players aren't supposed to take liquor nor drink it inside the venue. Smoking may also be restricted inside the venue, as there are designated smoking sections.

Take note that some Bingo houses don't allow food but some do, so it basically depends on the venue. Policies vary among different venues. For instance, some bingo halls allow reservation of cards, while others don't allow it. Some allow people to leave the venue in the middle of the game, others forbid it. But there are general policies observed in all bingo houses, such as disqualification of tampered bingo cards. There is no way you can get away with a tampered card because the walkers are adept at identifying authentic cards from tampered ones. You could be banned from a bingo establishment if proven liable of tampering a card. Hence, you should play honestly.

Interestingly, some venues offer special bingo games for kids although some halls don't allow players to have companions while playing. Suppose you bring kids with you, don't let them run around the venue and bother other gamers. They should behave well whilst you play and the game proceeds. Play quietly and don't recite the numbers you desperately want to come off because you'll be much of a disturbance if you do. Decorous playing is expectant of all players, even those who play roulette at casinos. Also, having a valid identification is important because you don't know you might win and need to present credentials.

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